In relation to GMAT, there are numerous confusions on the subject of participles. To a certain extent, participles are words used for word description and these are produced from verbs.
We will have a brief discuss about the topics of participles which will help you through your GMAT.
At first, you have to know how many types of participles are there?
Primarily, There are two categories of participles.
- The Present Participle
These kinds of participles generally ends in –ing format of structure.
e.g.- dancing, eating etc
- The Past Participle
Generally ends in –ed, -d, -t, -en or –n
e.g.- known, threaten, guessed etc.
The participles phrases which are started by the participles used to express nouns/ noun phrases or the whole sentences. The phrases in the examples are underlined below.
- I want to stand next to the girl wearing the yellow dress.
- Standing next to the tall gentleman, she looked petite.
Both types of Participles phrases are used by multiple types of methods.
Present Participles Phrases:-
- At the commencement of a new sentence, it is followed by a commaand after that a clause(present participle phrase +comma+clause).
Wging its tail, my dog ran up to me. (Here it modifies ‘my dog’)
- At the end of a sentence by using a comma, divided from the clause (clause+comma+present participle phrase).
The principal stepped on to the podium, silencing the students.( modifies the whole the whole previous clause)
- Next to a noun not including a comma.
I want to stand next to the girl wearing the yellow dress.(modifies ‘the girl’)
Past Participle Phrases:-
- Following a noun, separated by a comma (noun+comma+past participle phrase).
The most important crop of this region is rice, sown in the month of June and harvested in October.(modifies ‘rice’)
- At the starting point of a sentence before a comma in addition to next to a clause( past participle+comma+clause)
Battered by hail, the car collapsed.(modifies ‘the car’)
Now we will practice the standard use of participle modifiers which is an aspect of GMAT.
Question: Due to the slow-moving nature of tectonic plate movement, the oldest ocean crust is thought to date from the Jurassic period, formed from huge frments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
(A) formed from huge frments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
(B) forming from huge frments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
(C) forming from huge frments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasted 200 million years.
(D) formed from huge frments of the Earth’s lithosphere and lasting 200 million years.
(E) formed from huge frments of the Earth’s lithosphere and has been lasting 200 million years.
The correct response is (D).
If you chose (A), the ocean crust was “formed” long-o” but if “lasted” is past tense then the oldest ocean crust is no longer around, which would imply it couldn’t be the “oldest.”
If you chose (B) or (C), “forming” means the crust is still being produced. While it’s fact that Earth’s crust is persistently in flux, we’re alarmed with the “oldest ocean crust” – that part is no longer continuing to appear, but was created long centuries o.
If you chose (E), you properly used “formed,” though the present perfect “has been lasting” is needlessly confusing. The simple participle verb form will meet your requirements.
It’s only your sense of deduction which will clarify the confusion. And only from the sense, it feels like (D) is the correct answer, because it is grammatically correct and nothing else.